There is one popular story in our history classes about Napoleon's failure to invade Russia. History textbooks, and teachers who passionately talk about this story mainly connect this unsuccessful result to the following factors:
1) Climate-cold weather, the curse of god
2) Undefeated and heroic Russian nation
Napoleon's invasion failed because the Grand Armee was not equipped with the type of clothing needed to survive the winter. So, it was a mere planning failure. A project without a critical path is like a ship without a rudder.
Benchmarking; across different industries
Ferrari's pit-stop crew has a clear chain of command, allowing them to refuel the car and change all four tires in less than 7 seconds.
Some firms learn from another organization that operates in completely different market. In 2005, two doctors from London's Great Ormond Street children's hospital were struck by the efficiency of the Ferrari pit crew during a Formula 1 race.
Doctors observed that only one person in the crew gave orders, avoiding time lost in discussion, and pit-stop routines were standardized. Crew members specialized in one task, which they practiced over and over, until it was perfect.
Doctors changed working arrangements at the hospital by applying Ferrari's best practice: clear job descriptions meant each member of staff knew what their role was, and a leadership position was assigned for each shift. As a result, patient handover errors between the operating theatre and intensive care unit fell by 70 per cent.